With the advent of synthetic materials durable and reliable in the past half century, the use of these types of materials in engineering increased. Therefore, that today cover topics such as flexible membrane filter plates understanding.
These natural products are gradually accepting the role of man in the last 15 years, designing and manufacturing synthetic materials or Geosynthetic soil work in civil engineering operations, advanced technologies have been important. The most basic use of Geosynthetic in areas with steep and unsuitable marshy ground for the construction of certain buildings, as well as implementing arm landscaping and soil.
The most important member of this family, geotextile and Geomembrane tensile fibers are different in the fields of engineering science and mechanics of soil and soil cover on the road to promote safe structures, role play Anchors. As the structure of the heavy loads of high explosive and also impermeable to the flow of water and are safe.
The history and development of Geosynthetic
Armed of the earliest applications today as geotextile materials, modern Geomembrane considered.
About five thousand years ago in the Iranian Plateau in the first millennium BC and the construction of houses for the construction of places of worship such as the Tower of Babel of soil reinforced with bamboo were use.
The use of a mat woven canvas pages Ozone in Italy and in the Netherlands, the US and Britain to strengthen the embankments along the river and the road grid devised. Taking the first generation polymer Geosynthetic late fifties, the time that the application was introduced as the new filters.
The boom period of the late 60th century and the beginning of a geotextile filter cover and arming of roads, airports, dams, etc. during the upward journey.
Familiarity with the synthetic fiber Geosynthetic
Thin, flexible sheets made from materials that are in the soil or in connection with the implementation of Geotechnical projects and engineering structures, especially in civil engineering and geotechnical used.
Geocamposit and P.V.C of fibers and polymers, synthetic fiber Geogrid of such a combination of various polymers and Geomembrane faced with more applications. Geomembrane and geotextile groups which fluids such as water and gases to pass through and accept. The geotextile fabric materials such porous fiber textiles with drainage capability, if placed in the soil cannot be decomposed.
Main features Geosynthetics categories:
Geosynthetics characteristics as any other material which is used in engineering activities; materials used in their production, quality of construction and the final product will depend on the physical form.
Their main characteristics divided in three groups:
1 – Physical characteristics: density, thickness, flexibility
2 – Mechanical properties: durability and rolling resistance puncture resistance, resistance to frictional characteristics.
3 – Hydraulic characteristics: size, porosity, permeability, transmissibility
From these characteristics, it could be appropriate geotextile for specific engineering activities, could selected.
Introduced by dam projects and construction of geotextile following:
The significance of these materials in the field of construction and permanent applications divided.
- Access roads to the aim of facilitating the process of consolidation and limit the upstream and downstream slope Filters 2. Drainage embankment overflow temporary 3. Thin layer of protective 4. Coating sheet downstream drainage heels impractical in situations such as road or permanent 5. Fill the soil in the embankment armed. 6. Filtration and separation materials, which could divided.
Separation and isolation of the insulation
Geotextile materials to isolate two with different types of building materials used for the separation of the two types of sand, soil and rock or two different areas of interest in a dam
Of woven or nonwoven membranes, as well as maintaining the tensile strength and other mechanical properties of the Geomembrane textile soil structure, the soil bearing capacity designed to distribute large levels of concentrated forces used the cover.
Geotextile to prevent the diversion of a river and its flow to a certain area in order to maintain the stability of the soil, is used; that the water passes through the screen geotextile fabric, woven from thick and is intensifying.
One of the first applications of geotextile, filtration work conditions that allow water to pass through the geotextile membrane also prevents disintegration Dado fine and coarse soil was use as a filter.
The importance of this issue begins when drainage is block if an increase in pressure cause many problems.
Introduced administrative restrictions and selective geotextile
In order to confront the destructive effects of ultraviolet rays, while geotextile engineering to direct sunlight for a few days, a forecast is necessary. Textile so that the layers of the building until the soil, rocks and covered a total of more than 30 days should not be expose to ultraviolet light.
The permeability conditions should base on the level of textile that are in contact with the water flow is calculated.
For example If 50% of the surface covered by flat concrete block textile. The effective rate of 50% reduced.
It must be apparent that the size of the pores textile with maximum and minimum pore diameter of the pores on the particle’s ability to retain apply.
– When installing Geotextile must establish on the slopes.
– Geotextile in the embankment (load), have enough resistance against possible damage.
– Geotextile with saving design features and tear, unable to bear the strain caused by loads such as earthquakes occur around the embankment that it is important textile good performance during the earthquake mentioned.
Textile after implantation, should be analyzed by the instability of its component materials must be resistant against a hurt because plant root growth.
Because geotextile if soaking in ice and temperature, leading to a decrease in the barrier resistance to cold regions need to avoid contact with very cold water to be brought.
Generally, most geotextiles are make from polypropylene or polyester Palin and may be woven or nonwoven production:
- Woven Monofilaments
- Multi-woven Monofilaments
Monofilaments film woven font size
Four main types of polymers geotextile materials comprise:
The oldest or first polymer that use in the production of polyethylene geotextile that ICI discovered in 1931 in laboratory. After the polymer, polyamide is the highest record play Properties of polymers in layers as shown below:
Low : L Medium : M High : H
|L||L||M||H||Modulus of elasticity|
|H||M||M||M||Strain to rupture|
|H||H||M||H||UV light resistance|
|H||M||M||M||Mold and vermin|
he most common use case for the main polyester fibers to polypropylene P.P fiber price is competitive in terms of cost price lower than the fiber polypropylene geotextile is polyester.